Welcome to the Prototype of Itinera
Travel played a pivotal role in the shaping of the intellectual and artistic culture of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe. While the capital cities of Rome, Paris, and London had always served as major attractions for travelers, the increasing specialization and ease of mobility over the course of these centuries began to open remote areas such as Greece, Egypt, and the Near East to scholarly inquiry. Simultaneously, an interest in national landscapes and antiquities made other less highly-trafficked local regions the focus of new forms of tourism.
Visualizing, understanding and creating new knowledge about the changing patterns and objectives for these types of travel are the primary goals of Itinera. Designed to allow scholars and students to better comprehend the interconnected phenomena of travel, object collection and site documentation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Itinera will be a map-based, interactive, digital resource that overlays and juxtaposes these travelers’ movements alongside the objects of their study and their own creative output.
This digital environment has been proactively designed to collect and present historical data within a visual context of discovery capable of driving new research and generating new understandings. This system will not only represent the scholarly community’s pre-existing knowledge on the topic of cultural tourism during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it will also serve to create an innovative academic apparatus richly and transparently structured enough to allow new interpretations to find their ways into and among the assumptions that underlie that structure.

Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington

architect, collector

25 April 1694 - 3 December 1753

Upon his father's death in 1704, Burlington inherited his title and estates. Burlington was a "gentleman" architect, building not out of professional economic necessity but as a passionate vocation. His Irish estates provided a major source of revenue for his projects, including the transformation of his suburban villa at Chiswick into a paradigm of classical architecture.

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Francis Pierpoint Burton, 2nd baron Conyngham

politician

c. 1725 - 22 May 1787

Francis Pierpoint Burton traveled to Italy with his tutor, Alexander Scott. At Turin, his friend and fellow Irishman Lord Charlemont offered to lend him money to join an expedition to the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean). John Ingamells has noted that "Burton has been descdribed as playing Sancho Panza to Charlemont's Quixote."

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James Caulfeild, 1st earl of Charlemont

aristocrats,

18 August 1728 - 4 August 1799

Charlemont was educated by a succession of tutors, including Edward Murphy who would be his travel companion throughout Italy and the Eastern Mediterranean.

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William Chambers

architect

23 February 1723 - 8 March 1796 - 23 February 1723

Sir William Chambers was a Scottish architect who worked mainly in London. After traveling throughout Italy, he settled in London in 1755 and began his successful career as an architect, earning the title of Comptroller of the Office Works in 1769.

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Cornelia Chambers

daughter

5 July 1753 - unknown

Cornelia was born to William Chambers and Catherine More on July 5, 1753 in Strada Felice in Rome.

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Selina Chambers

daughter

late 1754-early 1755

Selina was the second daughter of William Chambers and Catherine More.

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Giovanni Battista Cipriani

painter, draughtsman, designer

1727 - 14 December 1785

Cipriani trained in Florence under Iganzio Hugford. He went to Rome in 1750 where he became acquainted with travelers on the Grand Tour. In 1755, he went to London with William Chambers and Joseph Wilton where he settled until his death in 1785. He was considered one of the main contributors to the development of the Neo-classical decorative style. Some of his notable works include his restoration of Antonio Verrio's ceiling paintings at Windsor Castle and Peter Paul Reuben's ceiling at the Banqueting House in London.

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Charles-Louis Clérisseau

architect, painter

28 August 1721 - 9 January 1820

Clérisseau was an important figure in the spread of Neoclassical architecture throughout Europe and North America. In Italy, he became acquainted with Piranesi, Winckelmann, Cardinal Alessandro Albani and other antiquarians and made hundreds of drawings of real and imaginary scenes of classical architectural, which he sold to Grand Tourists.

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Francis Dashwood, 11th baron Le Despencer

aristocrats, politician, administrator

December 1708 - 11 December 1781

Dashwood first traveled abroad in 1726. He made several extended trips to Italy, participating in the excavations at Herculaneum. He was acquainted with Niccolini, Montesquieu and other scholars and antiquaries. While traveling to St Petersburg, stopping en route at Copenhagen, he kept a detailed diary, which offers important first-hand descriptions of both capitals at the time.

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Matthieu de La Teulière

artist, administrator

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Jean-Baptiste De Troy

administrator

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Francis Egerton, 3rd duke of Bridgewater

21 May 1736 - 8 March 1803

In 1753 Francis was sent on a grand tour with a tutor, Robert Wood, a renowned scholar. They stayed in Paris and Lyon, and Bridgewater began collecting art under Wood's guidance. Later in life, after building his canal and colliery businesses into an empire, Bridgewater continued building his collection, incorporating the Orléans collection of Italian paintings first put together by Cardinal Richelieu, and encouraging J. W. M. Turner.

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Abbé Grant

clergyman

1 September 1784 - 15 August 1708

Abbé Grant, Roman Catholic priest, was an important liaison for British travelers in Rome, so much so that he was referred to by John Ingamells as "something of an institution." As a Roman Agent to the Scottish Catholic Mission, he spent his entire adult life in Rome. He neglected the duties of his office, however, focusing instead on serving British travelers as agent, tour guide, and sometimes personal assistant. Lord Bute later erected a monument to him in Scots College.

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Cardinal de Tencin

clergyman

22 August 1679 - 2 March 1758

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Ignazio Hugford

art dealer, collector

1703 - 16 August 1778

Born in Pisa of English parentage, Hugford was a collector and dealer whose connoisseurship of Quattrocento painting and drawing was highly regarded. However he was not above selling works with spurious attributions and indeed many of the paintings that passed through his hands were fakes.

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Dr. James Irwin

physician

28 February 1759 - ca. 1687

Dr. Irwin and his wife, Madalena, arrived in Rome prior to 1732. They lived in the Strada Gregoriana, where he was a Medico de Re. Though Irwin remained in the Stuart service until his death, he socialized in non-Jacobite circles as well. Irwin had many prominent patients including Robert Adams and James Tyrell. In April 1755, Selina Chambers, the second daughter of William Chambers and Catherine More, was left in the care of Dr. James Irwin and his wife at their home in Rome when Chambers, More, and their other daughter Cornelia left Rome for England. Mrs. Irwin brought Selena back to England in May of 1759 after Dr. Irwin's death in February of the same year.

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William Kent

architect, landscape architect, designer, illustrator, interior designers, painter

December 1685 - 4 December 1748

Kent was a polymathic artist and designer, and one of the most innovative and influential architects active in England in the first half of the 18th century. Although he was born into a poor family, Kent cultivated a close relationship to the high-born Lord Burlington and was laid to rest in the family vault at Chiswick.

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François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois

army officers

18 January 1641 - 16 July 1691

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Daniel Lock

architect

ca. 1682 - 1754

Lock accompanied John Talman and William Kent to Italy, where he spent three years from 1709 to 1712. The trio stayed in Florence and Rome, and met regularly to go on architectural excursions. In 1711 Lock moved to the Strada Paolina, where Kent and the painter Thomas Edwards were also residing. Lock returned to London by March 1714.

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Horace Mann, first baronet

diplomat

August 1706 - 16 November 1786

Even in his school days, Mann was in poor health. Seeking a more hospitable climate, he traveled to Italy (taking a coffin with him, anticipating the worst). He visited Naples, Rome, Venice and Florence, where he became a British envoy. His house was open to all British travelers.

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Catherine More

mother

Catherine More married architect William Chambers in Rome on March 24, 1752 or 1753 (sources provide conflicting information). Together, they had four children.

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Sir James Oughton

army officers, antiquary

27 October 1719 - 14 April, 1780

Oughton attended Trinity College, Dublin but left early when his father died, ending young James' financial support. Instead of law, therefore, Oughton pursued a military career. While serving in Ireland in the late 1730s he developed an interested in antiquities which he later explored while serving abroad in Minorca, Algiers and Italy. Allegedly, he witnessed the marriage of William Chambers and Catherine More in 1752.

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Richard Pococke

clergyman, collector

19 November 1704 - 25 September 1765

Pococke, Church of Ireland bishop of Ossory, of Elphin, and of Meath, was a divine and traveler, who made tours to England, Scotland, and Ireland and continental Europe. Pococke's most ambitious journey, from 1737 to 1740, was to the Near East, then virtually unknown to western travelers.

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George Potter

Allegedly witnessed the marriage of William Chambers and Catherine More, but this is not confirmed.

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Laurent Pécheux

painter

1729 - 1753

Pécheux was a French painted living in Rome, who inspired the architect Robert Adam to delve into Classical culture and influenced Adam's style of architectural drawing.

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Allan Ramsay

painter

13 October 1713 - 10 August 1784

The son of a poet and bookseller, Ramsay grew up around books. Before the age of sixteen, he drew an astonishingly accomplished head of his father, which was later engraved for the frontispiece the elder Ramsay's Poems. Allan Ramsay studied painting in Italy and later become a successful portraitist in London.

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Nicholas Revett

artist, architect

May 1720 or 1721 - 3 June 1804 - 11 May 1721

An amateur architect, draughtsman and artist, Revett studied painting and architecture in Italy. With James "Athenian" Stuart he published measured drawings of the ruins of ancient Athens, which influenced contemporary taste and provided documentation of monuments that were later destroyed.

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Abbé Stonor

clergyman

c. 1716 - 12 April 1795

Stonor was an English Catholic Agent who went to Rome in 1748. He was an important contact for English visitors although it appears he was not involved in the business of the fine arts.

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James 'Athenian' Stuart

artist, architect

1713 - 2 February 1788

Stuart was renowned for his four-volume book "Antiquities of Athens," co-written with Nicholas Revett; it is considered the first accurate record of classical Greek architecture.

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John Stuart, 3rd earl of Bute

aristocrats

25 May 1713 - 10 March 1792

As Prime Minister of England, Bute negotiated peace with France to end the Seven Years' War. He was also a gifted amateur scholar with a special interest in botany and patron of anatomist William Hunter, the naturalist John Strange, and the mineralogist Peter Woulfe.

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Joseph Wilton

sculptor

16 July 1722 - 25 November 1803

English sculptor who worked closely with William Chambers and Robert Adam, building chimney pieces and other decorative sculpture.

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Robert Wood

scholar

1716 or 1717 - 9 September 1771

Wood was a renowned scholar who traveled throughout Europe and to Greece, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt. His expeditions to the Near East produced books on Palmyra and Balbec that laid the foundations for later eighteenth-century archeological writing.

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